Excellent question, many answers I was a beginner not that long ago, here’s my experience & suggestions:
Like your question suggests, once you grow out of the first, beginner phase, the information/tutorials/guidance kind of disappears. Sure, there’s lots of blog posts and books, but knowing what to read and what to do next, that’s the hard part.
I personally think the best thing to do at this point, as a learner, is to start your own project. But since getting stuck is pretty much a given, having someone there to guide you through is essential. So YES having space for self-directed learning would be a great thing.
In addition, maybe offer talks on general concepts/ topics. I know it’s not as hands-on as a workshop, but it’s tremendously helpful. I remember feeling like I missed the proper words (jargon) to describe things. Also, many things you read are about something very specific, whereas I was looking for resources that gave me a bit more of an overview.
We noticed this at Hackership as well, which is why we started giving more general talks. Like this one on databases. Other interesting topics would be: web security, algorithms (the ones you actually need), how do compilers work, or design patterns for a specific language.
On top of all that, I think it would be very interesting to have a monthly code review session, where learners can just walk in and have their code reviewed. Or maybe this could happen online. Again, when I was in this quicksand phase, I was very much looking for feedback. Just knowing you are on the right track (or not) can take away a lot of self doubt.
Basically we try to do all this within Hackership, which often ends up being a bridge for not beginners to get to junior developer level. It would be interesting to see if this could also work as a collection of workshops/co-working afternoons/talks (instead of a full-time programme). Please keep us posted!